Bats (lot. Chiroptera) up a fifth of the world's mammal species, however, due to its slėpingo lifestyle is one of the least investigated groups and only in the last decades reveals a little more of their biological knowledge. But even now is still a lack of information about these mammals.
Šikšnosparniai yra unikalūs gyvūnai, other prominent among most mammals unusual biological properties. Above them all well known - it is the, that bats are the only flying mammals in the world. Only nesuklyskit - not only flying animals, and mammals - such animals, that nourish their young with milk. Flying animals are more - and all the well-known birds, while in mammals including bats are the only, of the forearms turned into wings. Unlike birds, bat wings of feathers at, and a thin film of skin, which combines not only the front of the posterior limb, but the tail and very prolongation front limbs fingers. To walk or stand, they fail, because the legs and feet too weak to perform the following functions. They are used for other purposes - some species are caught with their help and parsing larger prey, and all species - overhanging. Their toes have long, sharp claws and strong tendons. So, bat landing heavily susigniaužia fingers and nails grabbed the ceiling. They can hang even on one leg. Even žiemodami, when bombarded by a few months, hanging upside down. There are cases, when found still hanging even dead bat. Be to, Bats can head to rotate 180 degrees, so even kabodami head down very well all around the visible.
Atsižvelgiant į išvaizdą, mitybą ir orientavimosi aplinkoje būdą visi šikšnosparniai yra skirstomi į vaisėdžius ir vabzdžiaėdžius. Vaisėdžių šikšnosparnių yra apie 180 rūšių – dažniausiai tai stambūs didelėmis akimis, fruit bats, that environment-oriented vision. Very often, this impressive sizes, for example., Indomalajinėje area resident Kalonge (Pteropus vampyrus) outspread wings of the distance between the tip to 1,7 metro.
Insectivorous bats are generally lower than Fruit, and environment-oriented and visual, and the dissemination of ultrasound. This is another unique feature of the bat – emitting ultrasounds and ears catching the returning echo. It is very cumbersome for some bat folds on the nose and external ear complicated structure directly related to the location.
Dauguma vabzdžiaėdžių šikšnosparnių minta vabzdžiais, but there are carnivorous, feed on amphibians, reptiles or even other small bats (for example., false vampire (Cardioderma cor)). Among the insect-eating bats are three types of bats, of which the legend, paskleidusios unreasonable fear of bats in humans. These vampires: Simple (Desmodus rotundus), Whitefly (Diphylla ecaudata), and apželtakojis (Diaemus youngi) vampires. Indeed, these three species of bats feed on blood. The researchers believe, that the ancestors of the Vampire ate insects and their larvae, living in large mammals wounds, and then - the same food began to use the blood of mammals or birds. So do not be afraid of their people - they not only reported to feed on human blood, but do not live in Lithuania.
Another unique characteristic of bats are insectivorous bats ability to unfavorable life 5 – 35 fold lower your body temperature and therefore slows down the metabolism not eaten even 5 – 7 cold months. This is called hibernation or hibernacija.
Šiuo metu žinoma virš 1000 species and their number is constantly growing. They are found everywhere, except deserts and polar areas (tai Antarktida, in cold, white and where nobody wants to live). Fruit prevalent in Africa, South Asia, and Australia, and insectivores - live in forests in both hemispheres